Standardized Test Tools

Multiple Choice Questions

Single Select Questions

A traditional multiple choice question is one in which a student chooses one answer from a number of choices supplied.

Multi-Select Questions

These questions allow user to choose more than one response option from a number of provided choices.

True/False Questions

A true-false questions is a specialized form of the multiple-choice format in which there are only two possible alternatives. These questions can be used when the test designer wishes to measure a student's ability to identify whether statements of fact are accurate or not.

Labeling Questions

Graphic Labeling

The graphic labeling task requires user to drag-and-drop labels to the correct location on an image or diagram (e.g. Venn Diagram). This type of question can be manipulated on a computer with a mouse or trackball or on a touch screen tablet.

One to One Labeling

For this drag and drop task, the user selects a label from a list at the top of the screen and drags it to the correct location on the screen. Once the label has been used, it cannot be reused unless it is first moved back to the top of the screen.

Unlimited Labeling

This item is similar to one-to-one labeling except that labels can be reused. The user clicks or touches the label and drags it to the correct location.

Grouping and Ordering Questions

Matching Items

With matching, the student matches each label with its correct response by clicking or touching one element in each column in turn. When the option in the second column is chosen, a line appears marking the connection between the two. Each option can be paired only once.

Categorizing Items

The categorization questions require the user to organize elements into categories. There are two interfaces for this type of questions. In the drag-and-drop interface, the user clicks or touches an element and drags it into the correct category using a mouse or touch screen. With the click-to-select interface, the user clicks or selects an element to select it. Then, the user clicks or touches the category label, and the element appears in that category.

Ordering/Ranking Items

Ordering/Ranking/Sequencing is a drag-and-drop task in which the student must move the elements on the screen to put them in the correct order.

Interactive Questions

What are Interactive Questions?

Include videos, animations, coloring, graphing, games, puzzles or any other type of question that requires high levels of interaction between user and the interface.

Field Simulations

Offers simulations of real problems or exercises.

Combination of Multiple Tools

Matrix

The matrix questions combines elements from multiple choice questions and categorizations types, and allow users to assign elements to categories or groups.

Assertion Reason

The assertion-reason item combines elements of multiple choice and true/false question types, and allows you to test more complicated issues and requires a higher level of learning. The question consists of two statements, an assertion and a reason. The student must first determine whether each statement is true. If both are true, the student must next determine whether the reason correctly explains the assertion. There is one option for each possible outcome.

Text Based Questions

Constructed Response

The text match question requires a student to supply an answer to a question or complete a blank within a brief piece of text, using words, symbols or numbers.

Select Text

A word/ Code/ Phrase is out of keeping with the rest of package. This item requires user to select one or more words, phrases, or sentences from a passage. When user selects an option, its appearance changes to verify that it has been selected.

Essay Questions

This item requires examination on a given topic requiring a written analysis or explanation, usually of a specified length from a sentence to multiple pages.

Accessibility Considerations

Test Tool Issues with Current Tools Alternative Methods
Multiple Choice Questions
  • May not be easily accessible onscreen depending on the nature of the task e.g. use of visual elements in provided responses.
  • For visually-impaired students who rely on text-to-speech software, remembering a variety of spoken information can require considerable mental effort.
  • Students who rely on text-to-speech software require longer time to digest information and recognize the subtle distinctions between choices. A dyslexic student may be unable to identify such subtle distinctions at all.
  • Questions that address higher-order understanding rather than surface learning are very complex and can require numerous re-readings. This has the potential to disadvantage the visually impaired student and those using text-to-speech software.
  • Progressing between options using the tab key (for students who cannot use a mouse) can take up a great deal of additional time.
  • Provide a printed version or a braille transcription (if applicable).
  • Provide different methods for selecting a response, such as mouse click, keyboard, touch screen, speech recognition, assistive devices to access the keyboard and select (e.g., mouth stick, head wand, one-and two-switch systems).
  • Provide an option for paper/pencil in addition to computer (e.g., scratch paper for solving problems, drafting ideas).
  • Try to avoid overly-complex answers, especially long lists with distinctions that can only be made by careful re-readings.
  • If using graphics, ensure that high-quality recorded descriptions are available for each graphic used or that a narrative is included with video clips to describe any action taking place.
Labeling Questions , Grouping and Ordering , Interactive Questions
  • Actions like dragging and dropping elements onscreen are inaccessible.
  • Inaccessible to students who cannot see the screen or navigate with a mouse or touchscreen.
  • Difficult to transcribe into braille or print
  • Difficult for text-to-speech screen readers
  • Inaccessible to switches
  • Replace those actions with radio buttons, matrix, or click to select interactions
  • Use of drop downs that is compatible with keyboards and switches
  • Include high-quality recorded descriptions for each graphic without disclosing the responses.
Combination of Multiple Tools
  • Scrolling issues
  • Variations in screen size
  • Effects of magnification on graphics and table size
  • Layout issues for tables
  • High Cognitive load
  • Provide a printed version or a braille transcription (if applicable).
  • Provide text-to-speech screen readers depending on the content.
  • Provide different methods for selecting a response, such as mouse click, keyboard, touch screen, speech recognition, assistive devices to access the keyboard and select (e.g., mouth stick, head wand, one-and two-switch systems).
  • Provide an option for paper/pencil in addition to computer (e.g., scratch paper for solving problems, drafting ideas).
  • Try to avoid overly-complex matrices, with multi columns and rows.
Text Based Questions
  • Implications of using the spell check when achievement in spelling is being measured as part of the writing process.
  • Implications of using a screen reader when the construct being measured is reading.
  • Difficult for students who do not use keyboard.
  • Difficult for students who use speech recognition.
  • Requires multiple re-readings to proofread and edit.
  • Provide a printed version or a braille transcription (if applicable).
  • Replace those actions with radio buttons, matrix, or click to select interactions.

Resources