While individual resources might not be able to satisfy each principle exhaustively for every learner in all situations, the collective diversity of resources enabled through Floe could meet the needs and preferences of all learners.
Perceivability: Content should be consumable
Content should be made available in different and adjustable modalities so that learners who are more comfortable or only able to consume content in a particular mode have that option available to them.
Some ways this can be accomplished:
- Augmenting existing modalities: make things easier to see and hear (e.g., adding options to increase/decrease contrast, provide larger text, change volume, etc.)
- Provide text alternatives for non-text content (e.g., captions and other alternatives for multimedia)
Understandability: Content should be plain and clear to comprehend
- Different learners have different thresholds for wading through the complexity of the content, and complexity of the content's articulation/presentation
- Write content material that isn't unnecessarily difficult to understand
Some things that can be done:
- Provide a mechanism for content simplification: content prioritization, linearization, and reduction of non-essential clutter
- Make text readable and understandable
- Make content appear and operate in predictable ways.
Operability: Interactions should be operable by everyone
- Make sure that the resource is usable using different inputs (both a combination of different inputs, and individual inputs)
- Be sensitive to different levels of dexterity when using inputs
- Make all functionality available from a keyboard.
- Give users enough time to read and use content.
- Do not use content that causes seizures.
- Help users navigate and find content.
- Examples of inputs:
- Common inputs: mouse, keyboard
- Other inputs: switch, eye tracking, etc.
Robustness: Resources should be compatible with tools now and later
- Maximize compatibility with current and future user tools.
- Learning resources should gracefully degrade when using older tools, and progressively enhance when using modern tools.
Floe works with many international standards organizations to ensure that emerging technical standards are inclusively designed. In particular, Floe works with the World Wide Web Consortium (W3C).
The W3C develops web-related standards, the best known of which is probably HTML. The W3C process attempts to ensure accessibility is considered in all of its standards; in addition, several accessibility-focused standards have been produced. These are:
- Accessible Rich Internet Applications (ARIA): defines a technology for making dynamic web applications more accessible.
- Web Content Accessibility Guidelines (WCAG): guidelines for creating accessible web sites.
- Authoring Tool Accessibility (ATAG): guidelines for developing authoring tools that encourage and support authors to create accessible web sites.
- User Agent Accessibility Guidelines (UAAG): guidelines for developers of browsers, media players, etc. that facilitate accessible use.
Floe also works with:
- IMS Global Learning Consortium: Floe has been involved with ensuring inclusive design considerations are part of IMS Standards and has led the AccessForAll standard development.
- International Organization for Standardization (ISO): Floe has been most involved with the development of ISO/IEC 24751 Individualized adaptability and accessibility in e-learning, education and training, which is based on the IMS AccessForAll standard.